Pine trees are a good model for studying these relationships, as they have differentiated secretory organs for production and storage of chemical defences. Here is a brief summary of some of the key principles of the complexity sciences, aka system sciences or network sciences. In layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex, for example, increased basal tree complexity determines the recruitment of these neurons into functional circuits. In the case of pine defensive chemistry, the energy source for defensive chemistry is likely a combination of current assimilates and non-structural stored carbohydrates. Furthermore, it is related to tree growth in both temperate (Seidel, 2018) and tropical forests (this study). Advancing our understanding of the above‐mentioned topics has long been complicated, if not made impossible, since adequately characterizing tree architecture with mathematical methods was hardly possible (see Borchert & Slade, 1981). QK711.2.K72 2007 571.2—dc22 2007033499 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. For each tree, we calculated the crown surface area as the convex hull of the point cloud according to Metz, Seidel, Scheffer, Schulze, and Ammer (2013). The overlap of both strategies in space and time is assumed to be crucial for an efficient defence strategy (Cipollini and Heil 2010). 2012, Moreira et al. 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In this issue of Tree Physiology, Fernández-Pérez et al. In this sense, the results of Villari et al. Tree Physiology publishes studies of tree functional processes, from the molecular to ecosystem scale. We selected a subsample consisting of all trees with a wooden volume greater than 2 m3 (in total, 76 individuals, see Figure 2) to exclude trees from the understory. Authors Alexander T Fotis 1 , Peter S Curtis 1 Affiliation 1 Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, The Ohio State University, 318 W. 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH43210-1293, USA. In summary, Villari et al. Branching pattern of trees were also shown to be major drivers of tree structural complexity (Seidel et al., 2019). However, a deeper understanding of physiological systems can be achieved by modifying experimental design and analysis to account for complexity. To correct for the systematic bias as result of the logarithmic transformation, a first‐order correction based on the residual standard error was calculated (Sprugel, 1983). Identifying the relative contribution of these two sources to pine defences may have important implications for plant physiology and ecology (Martinez-Vilalta 2014, Saffell et al. 4A). We therefore argue that Db is a meaningful and integrative measure that describes the structural complexity of the aboveground compartments of a plant as well as its relation to structural efficiency (benefit‐to‐cost ratio), productivity, and growing conditions (competition or availability of light). The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. About this Attention Score In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric. We look back over 50 years of research into the water relations of trees, with the objective of assessing the maturity of the topic in terms of the idea of a paradigm, put forward by Kuhn in 1962. Like all organisms on Earth, trees must finely tune the relative allocation of resources to their living functions (namely growth, maintenance, defence and reproduction), seeking to optimize the costs and benefits (Bazzaz et al. Every node on the path to the new key Let us change variables. Using the approach presented in Seidel (2018), we determined the aboveground box‐dimension (Db) of 203 tree individuals belonging to ten different species using Mathematica software (Wolfram Research). From here on, we refer to this ratio as “architectural benefit‐to‐cost ratio” of the tree. Deriving Stand Structural Complexity from Airborne Laser Scanning Data—What Does It Tell Us about a Forest?. Its shape would be the perfect design if a tree would need to maximize its exchange surface to an omnipresent surrounding medium (e.g., air) at minimum building costs and in the absence of competition with other plant individuals. Such an absence of negative correlations between defensive chemicals at the individual level, or even a positive covariation, is not uncommon in plants (Koricheva et al. 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